Details of Thesis

Title Effects of Different Loading Intensities on Skeletal Adaptation to Exercise in Prepubertal Girls
Author Wiebe, Peter N.
Institution Australian Catholic University
Date 2004
Abstract This study involved a 28-week school-based exercise trial of single-leg drop-landing exercise with 42 girls (Tanner stage 1; 6-10 yr old) randomly assigned to control (C), low-drop (LD) or high-drop(HD) exercise groups. The latter two groups performed single-leg drop-landings (3 sessions.wk-1 and 50 landings.session-1) from 14cm and 28cm, respectively using the non-dominant leg. Single-leg peak ground-reaction impact forces (PGRIF) in a sub-sample ranged between 2.5 – 4.4 x body-weight (BW). No differences (p>0.05) among groups at baseline for age, stature, lean tissue mass (LTM - DXA - Lunar 3.6-DPX), leisure time physical activity or average daily calcium intake were detected. No significant within group changes for between leg differences from baseline to post-training and no significant differences among groups at baseline, or in magnitude of change for any of the dominant or non-dominant (loaded) leg bone mineral content (BMC g) measures determined by DXA – loaded leg total - 19.06, 25.5, 25.46 [p=.156], femoral neck - 0.14, 0.11, 0.15 [p=.959], greater trochanter - 0.37, 0.06, 0.26 [p=.733], mid femoral shaft - 3.87, 3.87, 3.42 [p=.677] for the C, LD and HD groups, respectively, after adjusting for the covariates baseline body and fat mass, and change in LTM (ANCOVA) were observed. Similarly, following ANCOVA adjustments no significant differences for changes in calcaneal speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation (CUBA Clinical), DXA derived changes in femoral neck (-0.009, 0.033, -0.009; p=.189) and total MFS (0.029, 0.041, 0.053; p=.447) volumetric BMD (g.cm-3), or MFS cortical volumetric BMD, the latter derived by a new technique combining MRI and DXA were identified. TBBMC changed by 79.6g-C, 100.2g-LD and 91.9g-HD (p=.339). Combining data from both exercise groups to increase statistical power produced similar results. No significant within group changes for between leg differences from baseline to post-training and no significant differences among groups at baseline, or in magnitude of change for any of the dominant or non-dominant (loaded) leg bone geometrical (area cm2) determined by MRI using ANALYZEŽ software of proximal - 22.18, 12.91, 19.86 [p=.248], mid - 19.83, 15.91, 19.64 [p=.233], or distal - 14.78, 16.07, 13.35 [p=.792], slice cortical area for the C, LD and HD groups, respectively, after adjusting for the covariates baseline body and fat mass, and change in LTM (ANCOVA) were detected. Similarly there were no significant biomechanical cross sectional moment of inertia (CSMI cm4) changes determined by Scion ImageŽ (Frederick, Maryland: Version-Beta 3B) and a custom macro program of proximal - 896, 815, 649 [p=.415], mid - 1054, 806, 1087 [p=.471], or distal - 1197, 1079, 966 [p=.606], slice CSMI for the C, LD and HD groups, respectively after adjusting for the same covariates. In contrast to some recent reports, our findings suggest that strictly controlled uni-modal; uni-directional single-leg drop-landing exercises involving low-moderate peak ground-reaction impact forces are not osteogenic in the developing prepubertal female skeleton.
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